Abstract: The article (fully accessible through attached link) explores the application of the Hall and Hord (2010) levels of use model to the context of interprofessional teams in health care settings. The discussion provides a framework for evaluating the progression of evidence-based practice behaviors over time. Although several forms of guidance exist for measuring the strength and characteristics of health care teams, there do not appear to be frameworks in place for assessing the evolution of evidence-based practices in a team context.
A review of employee skills and practices arising from staff development can assist organizations (health care, education, urban planning) in planning decisions around training to improve job performance. Skill improvement is an especially important focus for training evaluation, since it translates into organizational practices and prod- ucts. A staff development program could appear weak in affecting employees' behavioral practices, supporting a case for revision or discontinuation.
Professional development evaluators measure the results of training through knowledge gain and behavioral practices (Guskey, 2000). Evaluation frameworks from Hall and Hord (2010), Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick (2009), and Watts (1991) have supported outcome demonstrations in military staff development (Aaberg & Thompson, 2012), instructional technology (Dirksen & Tharp, 1997), and health professions education (International Education Collaborative Expert Panel [IECEP], 2011; MacIntosh-Murray, Perrier, & Davis, 2006). Some of these practices are referred to as evidence-based, which may complement (not necessarily replace) local heuristic and bureaucratic decision-making.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
A research-based form of practice (evidence-based) can blend into one's job domain through staff development. These sorts of practices are linked to published or otherwise disseminated research findings (traditionally of the experimental sort) to support their use. Although evidence-based practice is a term originating in medicine, this form of organizational practice increasingly informs the work of professionals in areas such as education, urban planning, mental health, and social work (Krizek, Forysth, & Slotterback, 2009). Once the organization deems a practice desirable (e.g., with implementing a mental health protocol or increasing housing access), lesson plans or training guides can support employees in meeting relevant objectives and integrating the practice into their job scope. The practice of interest, if evidence-based, comes with research findings or empirical "back- up" from other settings. As a result, the organization could be interested in examining the degree to which employees are comprehensively using the evidence-based practice and how the practice is adapting to their unique organizational culture. This would be an important discussion point if investigators share results of the organizational improvement with practitioner and/or academic audiences.
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